Russian Federation
Российская Федерация (Russian)
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvennyy gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Recognized territory of Russia is shown in dark green; claimed and disputed territory is shown in light green.[a]
and largest city
55°45′21″N 37°37′02″E / 55.75583°N 37.61722°E / 55.75583; 37.61722
Official and national languageRussian[3]
Recognised regional languages35 regional official languages[4]
Ethnic groups
(2021; including Russia and Crimea)[5]
  • 21.2% no religion
  • 9.5% Islam
  • 1.4% other (including Buddhism)[6]
  • 3.5% undeclared
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential republic under an authoritarian dictatorship[9][10][11][12]
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
30 December 1922
12 June 1990
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
8 December 1999
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[13] (within internationally recognised borders)
• Water (%)
13[14] (including swamps)
• 2024 estimate
  • Neutral decrease 146,150,789[15]
  • (including Crimea)[16]
  • Neutral decrease 143,679,916
  • (excluding Crimea)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (187th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $5.473 trillion[17] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $38,292[17] (60th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.057 trillion[17] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $14,391[17] (65th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 36.0[18]
HDI (2022)Increase 0.821[19]
very high (56th)
CurrencyRuble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

Russia,[b] or the Russian Federation,[c] is a country spanning Eastern Europe and North Asia. It is the largest country in the world by area, extending across eleven time zones and sharing land borders with fourteen countries.[d] It is the world's ninth-most populous country and Europe's most populous country. Russia is a highly urbanised country including 16 population centres with over a million inhabitants. Its capital as well as its largest city is Moscow. Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city and its cultural capital.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognised group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries CE. The first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', arose in the 9th century, and in 988, it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire. Rus' ultimately disintegrated, with the Grand Duchy of Moscow growing to become the Tsardom of Russia. By the early 18th century, Russia had vastly expanded through conquest, annexation, and the efforts of Russian explorers, developing into the Russian Empire, which remains the third-largest empire in history. However, with the Russian Revolution in 1917, Russia's monarchic rule was abolished and eventually replaced by the Russian SFSR—the world's first constitutionally socialist state. Following the Russian Civil War, the Russian SFSR established the Soviet Union with three other Soviet republics, within which it was the largest and principal constituent. At the expense of millions of lives, the Soviet Union underwent rapid industrialisation in the 1930s and later played a decisive role for the Allies in World War II by leading large-scale efforts on the Eastern Front. With the onset of the Cold War, it competed with the United States for ideological dominance and international influence. The Soviet era of the 20th century saw some of the most significant Russian technological achievements, including the first human-made satellite and the first human expedition into outer space.

In 1991, the Russian SFSR emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as the independent Russian Federation. A new constitution was adopted, which established a federal semi-presidential system. Since the turn of the century, Russia's political system has been dominated by Vladimir Putin, under whom the country has experienced democratic backsliding and a shift towards authoritarianism. Russia has been militarily involved in a number of conflicts in former Soviet states and other countries, including its war with Georgia in 2008 and annexation of Crimea in 2014 from neighbouring Ukraine, followed by the further annexation of four other regions in 2022 during an ongoing invasion.

Internationally, Russia ranks among the lowest in measurements of democracy, human rights and freedom of the press; the country also has high levels of perceived corruption. Russia's advanced economy ranks among the largest in the world, relying on its vast mineral and energy resources; the world's second-largest for oil production and natural gas production. It possesses the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons and has the third-highest military expenditure. Russia is a great power and a regional power. The country is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council; a member state of the G20, SCO, BRICS, APEC, OSCE, and WTO; and the leading member state of post-Soviet organisations such as CIS, CSTO, and EAEU/EEU. Russia is home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

  1. ^ Pifer, Steven (17 March 2020). "Crimea: Six years after illegal annexation". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chapple-2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Chevalier, Joan F. (2006). "Russian as the National Language: An Overview of Language Planning in the Russian Federation". Russian Language Journal. 56. American Councils for International Education ACTR / ACCELS: 25–36. JSTOR 43669126.
  4. ^ "What Languages Are Spoken in Russia?". WorldAtlas. 1 August 2017. Archived from the original on 19 February 2024. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  5. ^ "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 30 December 2022. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  6. ^ Shevchenko, Nikolay (21 February 2018). "Check out Russia's Kalmykia: The only region in Europe where Buddhism rules the roost". Russia Beyond. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  7. ^ "Русская православная церковь" (in Russian). Фонд Общественное Мнение, ФОМ (Public Opinion Foundation). 2 May 2024. Archived from the original on 16 May 2024. Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  8. ^ "Русская православная церковь" (in Russian). Фонд Общественное Мнение, ФОМ (Public Opinion Foundation). 2 May 2024. Archived from the original on 3 May 2024. Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  9. ^ Martin Krzywdzinski (2020). Consent and Control in the Authoritarian Workplace: Russia and China Compared. Oxford University Press. pp. 252–. ISBN 978-0-19-252902-2. OCLC 1026492383. officially a democratic state with the rule of law, in practice an authoritarian dictatorship
  10. ^ "Russia: Freedom in the World 2023 Country Report". Freedom House. 9 March 2023. Archived from the original on 11 March 2023. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Kuzio-2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ "World Statistics Pocketbook 2016 edition" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  14. ^ "The Russian federation: general characteristics". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  15. ^ Including 2,470,873 people living on the annexed Crimean Peninsula
  16. ^ Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2024 г. и в среднем за 2023 г. и компоненты её изменения [Estimates of the resident population as of January 1, 2024 and averaged over 2023 and the components of change] (XLSX). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original on 6 April 2024. Retrieved 22 June 2024.
  17. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2024 Edition. (Russia)". International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Archived from the original on 28 April 2024. Retrieved 16 April 2024.
  18. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  19. ^ "Human Development Report 2023/24" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 13 March 2024. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2024. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  20. ^ "Russia", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2022, archived from the original on 9 January 2021, retrieved 14 October 2022

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