Geologic time scale

Geologic time scale proportionally represented as a log-spiral. The image also shows some notable events in Earth's history and the general evolution of life.
The geologic time scale, proportionally represented as a log-spiral with some major events in Earth's history. A megaannus (Ma) represents one million (106) years.

The geologic time scale or geological time scale (GTS) is a representation of time based on the rock record of Earth. It is a system of chronological dating that uses chronostratigraphy (the process of relating strata to time) and geochronology (a scientific branch of geology that aims to determine the age of rocks). It is used primarily by Earth scientists (including geologists, paleontologists, geophysicists, geochemists, and paleoclimatologists) to describe the timing and relationships of events in geologic history. The time scale has been developed through the study of rock layers and the observation of their relationships and identifying features such as lithologies, paleomagnetic properties, and fossils. The definition of standardised international units of geologic time is the responsibility of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), a constituent body of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), whose primary objective[1] is to precisely define global chronostratigraphic units of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC)[2] that are used to define divisions of geologic time. The chronostratigraphic divisions are in turn used to define geochronologic units.[2]

While some regional terms are still in use,[3] the table of geologic time conforms to the nomenclature, ages, and colour codes set forth by the ICS.[1][4]

  1. ^ a b "Statues & Guidelines". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  2. ^ a b Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.C.; Gibbard, P.L.; Fan, J.-X. (1 September 2013). "The ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart". Episodes. 36 (3) (updated ed.): 199–204. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2013/v36i3/002. ISSN 0705-3797. S2CID 51819600.
  3. ^ Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Beard, Brian L.; Hoffman, Paul F.; Johnson, Clark M.; Kasting, James F.; Melezhik, Victor A.; Nutman, Allen P. (2012), "A Chronostratigraphic Division of the Precambrian", The Geologic Time Scale, Elsevier, pp. 299–392, doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-59425-9.00016-0, ISBN 978-0-444-59425-9, retrieved 5 April 2022
  4. ^ "International Commission on Stratigraphy". International Geological Time Scale. Retrieved 5 June 2022.