United States

Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100

United States of America
Motto: "In God We Trust"[a][2]
Anthem: "The Star-Spangled Banner"[3]
Orthographic map of the U.S. in North America
World map showing the U.S. and its territories
CapitalWashington, D.C.
38°53′N 77°01′W / 38.883°N 77.017°W / 38.883; -77.017
Largest cityNew York City
40°43′N 74°00′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W / 40.717; -74.000
Official languagesNone at the federal level[b]
National languageEnglish (de facto)
Ethnic groups
(2020)[6][7]
By race:[c]
By ethnicity:
Religion
(2020)[8]
Demonym(s)American[d][9]
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Joe Biden (D)
Kamala Harris (D)
Nancy Pelosi (D)
John Roberts
LegislatureCongress
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
July 4, 1776
March 1, 1781
September 3, 1783
June 21, 1788
August 21, 1959
Area
• Total area
3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2)[e][10] (3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
4.66[11]
• Total land area
3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2)
Population
• 2020 census
Neutral increase 331,449,281[f][12] (3rd)
• Density
87/sq mi (33.6/km2) (146th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $22.940 trillion[13] (2nd)
• Per capita
Increase $69,375[13] (8th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $22.940 trillion[13] (1st)
• Per capita
Increase $69,375[13] (5th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 48.5[14]
high
HDI (2019)Increase 0.926[15]
very high · 17th
CurrencyU.S. dollar ($) (USD)
Time zoneUTC−4 to −12, +10, +11
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 to −10[g]
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy[h]
Mains electricity110–120 V, 60 Hz[16]
Driving sideright[i]
Calling code+1
ISO 3166 codeUS
Website
USA.gov

The United States (U.S. or US), officially the United States of America (U.S.A. or USA) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, 326 Indian reservations, and some minor possessions.[j] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million square kilometers), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area.[e] The United States shares significant land borders with Canada to the north and Mexico to the south as well as limited maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, and Russia.[20] With a population of more than 331 million people, it is the third most populous country in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago, and European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Disputes with Great Britain over taxation and political representation led to the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), which established the nation's independence. In the late 18th century, the U.S. began expanding across North America, gradually obtaining new territories, sometimes through war, frequently displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states; by 1848, the United States spanned the continent. Slavery was legal in the southern United States until the second half of the 19th century, when the American Civil War led to its abolition. The Spanish–American War and World War I established the U.S. as a world power, a status confirmed by the outcome of World War II. During the Cold War, the United States fought the Korean War and the Vietnam War but avoided direct military conflict with the Soviet Union. The two superpowers competed in the Space Race, culminating in the 1969 spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991 ended the Cold War, leaving the United States as the world's sole superpower.

The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy with three separate branches of government, including a bicameral legislature. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Considered a melting pot of cultures and ethnicities, its population has been profoundly shaped by centuries of immigration. The U.S. ranks high in international measures of economic freedom, quality of life, education, and human rights; it has low levels of perceived corruption. However, the country has been criticized for inequality related to race, wealth, and income; use of capital punishment; high incarceration rates; and lack of universal health care.

The United States is a highly developed country, accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP, and is the world's largest economy by GDP at market exchange rates. By value, the United States is the world's largest importer and second-largest exporter of goods. Although its population is only 4.2% of the world's total, it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share held by any country. Making up more than a third of global military spending, it is the foremost military power in the world and a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[21]

  1. ^ a b c "The Great Seal of the United States" (PDF). U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  2. ^ 36 U.S.C. § 302
  3. ^ "An Act To make The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem of the United States of America". H.R. 14, Act of March 3, 1931. 71st United States Congress.
  4. ^ Cobarrubias 1983, p. 195.
  5. ^ García 2011, p. 167.
  6. ^ "2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country". United States Census. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  7. ^ "Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census". United States Census. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  8. ^ "Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel". Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel | Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. January 14, 2021. Archived from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  9. ^ Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and Fact-index: Ohio. 1963. p. 336.
  10. ^ Areas of the 50 states and the District of Columbia but not Puerto Rico nor other island territories per "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Census.gov. August 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2020. reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.
  11. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  12. ^ "Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count". United States Census. Retrieved April 26, 2021. The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  14. ^ "Income inequality in America is the highest it's been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  15. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  16. ^ "Electricity 101". United States Department of Energy. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  17. ^ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
  18. ^ "China". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  19. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
  20. ^ Simpson, Victoria (May 6, 2020). "Countries with Which the US Shares Maritime Borders". WorldAtlas.
  21. ^ Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower
    BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America
    "Geographical trends of research output". Research Trends. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
    "The top 20 countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
    "Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March 16, 2014.


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