New York (state)

New York
State of New York
Nickname(s): 
Motto(s): 
Excelsior (in Latin)[1]
Ever upward
Anthem: "I Love New York"
Map of the United States with New York highlighted
Map of the United States with New York highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of New York
Admitted to the UnionJuly 26, 1788 (11th)
CapitalAlbany
Largest cityNew York City
Largest metro and urban areasGreater New York
Government
 • GovernorKathy Hochul (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorBrian Benjamin (D)
LegislatureState Legislature
 • Upper houseState Senate
 • Lower houseState Assembly
JudiciaryNew York Court of Appeals
U.S. senators
U.S. House delegation
  • 19 Democrats
  • 8 Republicans
(list)
Area
 • Total54,555[2] sq mi (141,297 km2)
 • Land47,126 sq mi (122,057 km2)
 • Water7,429 sq mi (19,240 km2)  13.6%
Area rank27th
Dimensions
 • Length330 mi (530 km)
 • Width285 mi (455 km)
Elevation
1,000 ft (300 m)
Highest elevation5,344 ft (1,629 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total20,215,751[6]
 • Rank4th
 • Density416.42/sq mi (159/km2)
 • Density rank7th
 • Median household income
$64,894[7]
 • Income rank
15th
Demonym(s)New Yorker
Language
 • Official languageNone
 • Spoken language
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
NY
ISO 3166 codeUS-NY
Traditional abbreviationN.Y.
Latitude40° 30′ N to 45° 1′ N
Longitude71° 51′ W to 79° 46′ W
Websitewww.ny.gov
New York state symbols
Flag of New York.svg
Seal of New York.svg
Living insignia
BirdEastern bluebird
FishBrook trout (fresh water), Striped bass (salt water)
FlowerRose
InsectNine-spotted ladybug
MammalNorth American beaver
ReptileCommon snapping turtle
TreeSugar maple
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk
Food
FossilEurypterus remipes
GemstoneGarnet
ShellBay scallop
SloganI Love New York
OtherBush: Lilac bush Sport: Baseball
State route marker
New York state route marker
State quarter
New York quarter dollar coin
Released in 2001
Lists of United States state symbols

New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It was one of the original thirteen colonies forming the United States. With a total area of 54,556 square miles (141,300 km2),[2] New York is the 27th largest state geographically. Its population of more than 20 million people makes it the fourth most populous state in the United States as of 2020.[6][9][10] The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east; it has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. It is sometimes called New York State to distinguish it from New York City, its largest city.

With a population of 8,804,190 in 2020, New York City is the most populous city in the United States.[11][12][13] Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, one of the most populous in the world.[14][15] New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters,[16] and has been described as the cultural,[17][18] financial,[19][20] and media capital of the world,[21][22] as well as the world's most economically powerful city.[23][19][24] The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany.

New York has a diverse geography. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley. The larger Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, and the Adirondack Mountains in the northeastern lobe of the state. The north–south Hudson River Valley and the east–west Mohawk River Valley bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is part of the Great Lakes region and borders on the Great Lakes of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, as well as Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination.

The area of present-day New York had been inhabited by tribes of the Algonquians and the Iroquois confederacy Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans arrived.[25] French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company.[26] The Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed.[27] The Dutch soon also settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multiethnic colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664, with the Dutch recapturing their colony in 1673 before definitively ceding it to the English as a part of the Treaty of Westminster the following year.[28] During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and eventually succeeded in establishing independence. In the early 19th century, New York's development of its interior, beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the east coast and built its political and cultural ascendancy.[29]

Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, and Grand Central Terminal.[30] New York is also home to the Statue of Liberty.[31] In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship,[32] social tolerance,[33] and environmental sustainability.[34][35] New York has approximately 200 colleges and universities, including the State University of New York. Several universities in New York have been ranked among the top 100 in the nation and world.[36][37][38]

  1. ^ "New York State Motto". New York State Library. January 29, 2001. Archived from the original on May 24, 2009. Retrieved November 16, 2007.
  2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference area was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "Marcy". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  4. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  5. ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  6. ^ a b "2020 Census Apportionment Results". census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  7. ^ "Median Annual Household Income—2017". Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  8. ^ "Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over—2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  9. ^ "2010 to 2020 Population Estimate Totals". United States Census Bureau.
  10. ^ "Census finds New York's population increased 4%". Newsday. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
  11. ^ "Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
  12. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
  13. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
  14. ^ "World's Largest Urban Areas [Ranked by Urban Area Population]". Rhett Butler. 2003–2006. Archived from the original on October 9, 2009. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  15. ^ "Top 100 World Metropolitan Areas Ranked by Population". Baruch College of the City University of New York. Archived from the original on March 8, 2019. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  16. ^ "Office of the Mayor Commission for the United Nations, Consular Corps and Protocol". The City of New York. 2012. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  17. ^ "Introduction to Chapter 14: New York City (NYC) Culture". The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Archived from the original on May 5, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  18. ^ "New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 / edited by Leonard Wallock; essays by Dore Ashton ... [et al.]". National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  19. ^ a b "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S." Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2015. For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world.
    "PAL sets introductory fares to New York". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  20. ^ Jones, Huw (January 27, 2020). "New York surges ahead of Brexit-shadowed London in finance: survey". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved January 27, 2020. New York remains the world's top financial center, pushing London further into second place as Brexit uncertainty undermines the UK capital and Asian centers catch up, a survey from consultants Duff & Phelps said on Monday.
  21. ^ Richter, Felix (March 11, 2015). "New York Is The World's Media Capital". Statista. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
  22. ^ Ennis, Dawn (May 24, 2017). "ABC will broadcast New York's pride parade live for the first time". LGBTQ Nation. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
  23. ^ Florida, Richard (March 3, 2015). "Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Archived from the original on November 13, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2015. Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top.
  24. ^ Florida, Richard (May 8, 2012). "What Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City?". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  25. ^ Zumbusch, Amelie von; Faust, Daniel R. (July 15, 2014). The First Peoples of New York. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4777-7304-8.
  26. ^ "Henry Hudson and His Crew Sailed into the River that Would Bear His Name". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  27. ^ "Fort Nassau | A Tour of New Netherland". New Netherland Institute. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  28. ^ Greenspan, Jesse. "The Dutch Surrender New Netherland". History. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2021.
  29. ^ Roberts, Sam (June 26, 2017). "200 Years Ago, Erie Canal Got Its Start as Just a 'Ditch'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  30. ^ Ann Shields (November 10, 2014). "The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions—No. 3: Times Square, New York City—Annual Visitors: 50,000,000". Travel+Lesiure. Retrieved July 17, 2015. No. 3 Times Square, New York City—Annual Visitors: 50,000,000 ... No. 4 (tie) Central Park, New York City—Annual Visitors: 40,000,000 ... No. 9 Niagara Falls, New York and Ontario—Annual Visitors: 22,000,000 ... No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York City—Annual Visitors: 21,600,000
  31. ^ "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  32. ^ "Venture Investment—Regional Aggregate Data". National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  33. ^ Matt Flegenheimer (March 23, 2016). "Ted Cruz Deplores 'Liberal, Left-Wing Values' While Lobbying for New York Votes". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  34. ^ "The Latest: China Hopes US Joins Climate Deal Quickly". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 22, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  35. ^ Lisa Foderaro (September 21, 2014). "Taking a Call for Climate Change to the Streets". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  36. ^ "2020 Best National University Rankings". www.usnews.com.
  37. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
  38. ^ "CWUR 2015—World University Rankings". Center for World University Rankings. Retrieved August 27, 2015.