New Jersey

New Jersey
State of New Jersey
The Garden State[1]
Liberty and prosperity
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of New Jersey
Admitted to the UnionDecember 18, 1787 (3rd)
Largest cityNewark
Largest metro and urban areasNew York
 • GovernorPhil Murphy (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorSheila Oliver (D)
LegislatureNew Jersey Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseGeneral Assembly
JudiciarySupreme Court of New Jersey
U.S. senatorsBob Menendez (D)
Cory Booker (D)
U.S. House delegation10 Democrats
2 Republicans (list)
 • Total8,722.58 sq mi (22,591.38 km2)
 • Land7,354.22[2] sq mi (19,047.34 km2)
 • Water1,368.36 sq mi (3,544.04 km2)  15.7%
 • Rank47th
 • Length170 mi (273 km)
 • Width70 mi (112 km)
250 ft (80 m)
Highest elevation1,803 ft (549.6 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean[3])
0 ft (0 m)
 • Total9,288,994
 • Rank11th
 • Density1,263/sq mi (488/km2)
  • Rank1st
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
Demonym(s)New Jerseyan (official),[7] New Jerseyite[8][9]
 • Official languageNone
 • Spoken language
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-NJ
Traditional abbreviationN.J.
Latitude38°56′ N to 41°21′ N
Longitude73°54′ W to 75°34′ W

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the state of Delaware. At 7,354 square miles (19,050 km2), New Jersey is the fifth-smallest state in land area; but with close to 9.3 million residents,[6] it ranks 11th in population and first in population density. The state capital is Trenton, and the most populous city is Newark. With the exception of Warren County, all of the state's 21 counties lie within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia.

New Jersey was first inhabited by Native Americans for at least 2,800 years, with the Lenape being the dominant group when Europeans arrived in the early 17th century. Dutch and Swedish colonists founded the first European settlements in the state.[10] The British later seized control of the region and established the Province of New Jersey, named after the largest of the Channel Islands.[11][12] The colony's fertile lands and relative religious tolerance drew a large and diverse population. New Jersey was among the Thirteen Colonies that supported the American Revolution, hosting multiple pivotal battles and military commands in the American Revolutionary War. The state remained in, and supported, the Union during the American Civil War. Following the Civil War's end, the state emerged as a major national center of manufacturing and immigration, helping drive the Industrial Revolution[13] and becoming the site for many industrial, technological, and commercial innovations into the mid 20th century.

Since New Jersey's December 18, 1787, founding, many notable New Jersey residents have contributed to the nation's emergence as a global economic and political superpower, making substantial contributions across academics, activism, art, business, entertainment, government and politics, military, music, religion, science, and in other fields.

New Jersey's central location in the Northeast megalopolis helped fuel its rapid growth and suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. At the turn of the 21st century, its economy increasingly diversified, with major sectors including biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, specialized agriculture, and informational technology. New Jersey remains a major destination for immigrants and has one of the most multicultural populations in the U.S.[14][15] Echoing historical trends, the state has increasingly re-urbanized, with growth in cities outpacing suburbs since 2008.[16] New Jersey is one of the wealthiest states in the U.S. with the third highest median household income as of 2019.[17] Almost one-tenth of all households, or over 323,000 of 3.3 million, are millionaires, the highest per capita rate of millionaires of any state in the country.[18] New Jersey's public school system consistently ranks at or among the top of all U.S. states.[19][20][21][22]

  1. ^ The Garden State and Other New Jersey State Nicknames Archived September 2, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Robert Lupp, New Jersey Reference Services, New Jersey State Library, October 12, 1994.
  2. ^ "New Jersey". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  4. ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  5. ^ "Quickfacts New Jersey". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 12, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  6. ^ a b "2020 Census Apportionment Results". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  7. ^ "GPO Style Manual 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  8. ^ "New Jersey—Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  9. ^ "Definition of New Jerseyite". Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  10. ^ "NJ History Outline". Archived from the original on April 30, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  11. ^ "New Jersey". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on October 29, 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2010 – via
  12. ^ "Encyclopedia—New Jersey History". 2000–2011 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
  13. ^ Mansnerus, Laura (September 26, 1999). "New Jersey's Cities: Sad Urban Presence Encircled by Wealth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  14. ^ Dave Sheingold (March 24, 2016). "Bergen County leads population growth trend, halts flow to other parts of N.J". Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  15. ^ Kathleen Lynn (October 25, 2015). "What's the future for suburban office space?". Archived from the original on October 26, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  16. ^ Chrispher Maag (April 15, 2016). "Population rebounds around train stations in N.J". Archived from the original on April 18, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
  17. ^ "Household Income: 2017" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. September 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 19, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  18. ^ Burrows, Dan. "Millionaires in America 2020: All 50 States Ranked How many millionaires are in America and where do they live? The states with the highest number of millionaire households just might surprise you." Archived January 28, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Kiplinger, May 28, 2020. Accessed November 23, 2020. "Millionaire households: 323,443 Total households: 3,312,916 Concentration of millionaires: 9.76%... For the second year in a row, New Jersey is the top spot for millionaires per capita in the U.S. Like Connecticut, New Jersey has a high concentration of millionaires largely thanks to its proximity to New York City."
  19. ^ Kelly Heyboer (September 2, 2020). "N.J. has the best public schools in the nation – again, ranking says". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Archived from the original on September 3, 2020. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  20. ^ Kelly Heyboer (September 4, 2019). "N.J. has the No. 1 public schools in the nation, ranking says". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Archived from the original on September 4, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  21. ^ Alex Napoliello (August 4, 2014). "New Jersey has the best school systems in U.S., report says". New Jersey On-Line LLC. Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
  22. ^ "The 10 Best U.S. States for Education—2. New Jersey". U.S. News & World Report. February 27, 2018. Archived from the original on May 3, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.