Polish profanity

The Polish language, like most others, has swear words and profanity. Some words are not always seen as very insulting, however, there are others that are considered by some greatly offensive and rude. Words that might be considered most derogatory, based on multiple sources,[1][2][3] are not necessarily a general and have not been decided upon in a more definite manner.[4]

There are different types of swearing (as coined by Steven Pinker): abusive, cathartic, dysphemistic, emphatic and idiomatic.[5][6]

The Polish language uses all types of swearing mentioned. Research has shown that "Polish people hear profanity more often in a public space than in a private space".[7] 65% of surveyed adults said they have sworn due to emotions and only 21% claimed they never swore.[7]

The CBOS (Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej; The Center for Public Opinion Research) has done surveys to examine the use of profanity. In the research report, it was pointed out that information given about the private sector might not be accurate, as it is a protected and idealized space, meaning that the subjects of the survey could be downplaying or changing their answers providing a false report.[8]

  1. ^ Grochowski, Maciej (1948- ). (2008). Słownik polskich przekleństw i wulgaryzmów. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. ISBN 9788301156534. OCLC 297671369.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ janKomunikant (Organization) (2011). Słownik polszczyzny rzeczywistej (siłą rzeczy-fragment). Primum Verbum. ISBN 9788362157174. OCLC 767863631.
  3. ^ Dokowicz, Agnieszka. (2015). Wulgaryzmy w języku kibiców polskich, czyli "Polska grać, k... mać!". Wydawnictwo Naukowe Silva Rerum. ISBN 9788364447532. OCLC 939912647.
  4. ^ University of Rzeszów, Poland; Mormol, Paulina (2016). "The correlation between the high offensiveness of swear words and their productivity: A comparison of selected Polish and English examples". Studia Anglica Resoviensia. 13: 44–54. doi:10.15584/sar.2016.13.5.
  5. ^ "Profanity", Wikipedia, 2019-06-09, retrieved 2019-06-09
  6. ^ Pinker, Steven, 1954- (2007). The stuff of thought : language as a window into human nature. New York: Viking. ISBN 9780670063277. OCLC 154308853.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b Zbróg, Piotr; Zbróg, Zuzanna (2017-12-01). "Reprezentacja społeczna wulgaryzmów w świetle wypowiedzi polskich internautów". Socjolingwistyka. 31: 205–230. doi:10.17651/SOCJOLING.31.13.
  8. ^ Fundacja Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej (October 2013). "Wulgaryzmy w Życiu Codziennym" (PDF). Komunikat Z Badań.