Litvinism

Map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the main foundation of the Litvin identity, at its greatest extent from the 13th to 15th centuries.

Litvinism (Belarusian: Літвінізм, romanizedLitvinizm; Russian: Литвинизм, romanizedLitvinizm) is a branch of nationalism, philosophy and political current in Belarus, which bases the history of its state on the heritage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and emphasizes the Baltic component of the Belarusian ethnic group.[1] According to this branch of Belarusian nationalism, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (they refer to this state as Вялікае Княства Літоўскае, Vialikaje Kniastva Litoŭskaje, and to modern Lithuania as Летува, Letuva or Жмудзь, Žmudź) was a Slavic or Belarusian state, the medieval Lithuanians were Belarusians, and modern Lithuania is a consequence of a falsification of history.[2][3][4] On the other hand, some Russian Litvinists refer to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as a Slavic Russian state.[2][5][6]

The ideas of Litvinism claiming that the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a "Belarusian state" and that the Belarusians have "historical rights" to the Lithuanian capital Vilnius were expressed by interwar period Belarusians,[7] Belarusian communists,[8][9] long-term Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko,[10][11] members of the Belarusian opposition to Lukashenko,[12][13][14][15] and modern Belarusian scientists.[16][17][18][19][20] Moreover, Lukashenko claimed that the Polish city of Białystok is also historically Belarusian.[21]

Opponents of Litvinism consider it a fringe pseudohistorical theory.[22][23][24][25][26] The usage of the word "Letuva" when referring to modern Lithuania in Belarusian language was also criticized among Belarusians themselves who deemed it "unacceptable" and "monstrous" and stressed that in the early 1990s there was an agreement between Belarusian and Lithuanian intellectuals to stop using terms Лету́ва, Letuva and летувíсаў, letuvísaŭ in Belarusian publications.[27] Belarusian political activist Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya described Litvinism as "marginal cases" which seek to artificially set at variance Lithuanians and Belarusians, and claimed that Belarusians respect the integrity and heritage of Lithuania.[28][29] Litvinism was also described as a form of fascism with expansionistic territorial claims to neighboring countries of Belarus.[30]

Some Litvinists reject their Belarusian national identity[31] and affiliation with the Republic of Belarus,[31] in favor of a reconstructed Baltic Catholic[31] Litvin ("Lithuanian") identity, based on the history and legacy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. According to national censuses, only a few dozen residents of Belarus state their ethnic identity as Litvin rather than Belarusian.[32]

  1. ^ Sutkus 2020a.
  2. ^ a b Venckūnas, V. (29 September 2012). "Tomas Baranauskas: Litvinistams svarbiausia turėti gražią istoriją, kuri galėtų sutelkti tautą". Bernardinai.lt (in Lithuanian).
  3. ^ Sąlygaitė, Jonė; Baranauskas, Tomas; Laužikas, Rimvydas. "Kaip užkirsti kelią litvinizmo apraiškoms?". Žinių radijas (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  4. ^ Bružas, Rimas; Baranauskas, Tomas (6 September 2023). "Istorijos perimetrai. Litvinizmas - istorinė fikcija ar hibridinio karo dalis?". Lithuanian National Radio and Television (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Savukynas2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Savukynas2023 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Dubonis 2005, p. 520–521, 524.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference VilniusNovychas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference Arlou was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Stuburas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gurevicius was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Repeckaite was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference PazniakVilnius was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Tsepkalo was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference DELFI-11-7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Dubonis 2005, p. 521–522.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference Belsat2021 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Sanko was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Arlou2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Marzaliuk was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lukashenko2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Bakaitė, Jurga (27 December 2011). "LRT FAKTAI. Ar lietuviams reikia bijoti baltarusių nacionalinio atgimimo?" (in Lithuanian). Lithuanian National Radio and Television.
  23. ^ Baranauskas, Tomas; Ramanauskas, Algis (16 July 2015). ""Greiti Pietūs": Algis Ramanauskas ir Tomas Baranauskas". YouTube (in Lithuanian). Žinių radijas. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  24. ^ Baranauskas, Tomas; Baranauskienė, Inga; Ramanauskas, Algis (11 October 2019). "B&R Pristato: Istorikai Inga ir Tomas Baranauskai. LICVINIZMAS 20191010". YouTube. Bačiulis ir Ramanauskas. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  25. ^ Pancerovas, Dovydas. "Ar perrašinėjamos istorijos pasakų įkvėpta Baltarusija gali kėsintis į Rytų Lietuvą?" [Can Belarus, inspired by the fairy tales of rewritten history, invade Eastern Lithuania?]. 15min.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  26. ^ "Opinion: Why are our neighbours poaching our history?". Lithuania Tribune. 17 July 2014.
  27. ^ Cite error: The named reference ViacorkaShupa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. ^ Cite error: The named reference Tsikhanouskaya was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  29. ^ Cite error: The named reference Valkauskas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ "Gudijos fašistai atidarė filialą Vilniuj". Alkas.lt (in Lithuanian). 28 August 2023.
  31. ^ a b c "Litwinizm – nowe zjawisko na Białorusi [Litvinism - a new phenomenon in Belarus]". Kresy.pl (in Polish). 24 July 2008.
  32. ^ Kirkevich, Ales (29 January 2017). ""Яшчэ не позна вярнуць краіне сапраўднае імя — Літва" ["It is not too late for returning to our state its real name: Lithuania"]". Novy Chas (in Belarusian).