Islamic schools and branches

Islamic schools and branches have different understandings of Islam. There are many different sects or denominations, schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and schools of Islamic theology, or ʿaqīdah (creed). Within Islamic groups themselves there may be differences, such as different orders (tariqa) within Sufism, and within Sunnī Islam different schools of theology (Atharī, Ashʿarī, Māturīdī) and jurisprudence (Ḥanafī, Mālikī, Shāfiʿī, Ḥanbalī).[1] Groups in Islam may be numerous (the largest branches are Shīʿas and Sunnīs), or relatively small in size (Ibadis, Zaydīs, Ismāʿīlīs). Differences between the groups may not be well known to Muslims outside of scholarly circles, or may have induced enough passion to have resulted in political and religious violence (Barelvi, Deobandi, Salafism, Wahhabism).[2][3][4][5] There are informal movements driven by ideas (such as Islamic modernism and Islamism). There are some groups calling them muslims but they are not according to the teachings of Islam (such as Ahmadiyya, Qadiyanis, etc). Some of the Islamic sects and groups regard certain others as deviant or accuse them of not being truly Muslim (for example, Sunnīs frequently discriminate Ahmadiyya, Alawites, Quranists, and Shīʿas).[2][3][4][5] Some Islamic sects and groups date back to the early history of Islam between the 7th and 9th centuries CE (Kharijites, Sunnīs, Shīʿas), whereas others have arisen much more recently (Islamic neo-traditionalism, liberalism and progressivism, Islamic modernism, Salafism and Wahhabism) or even in the 20th century (Nation of Islam). Still others were influential in their time but are not longer in existence (non-Ibadi Kharijites, Muʿtazila, Murji'ah). Muslims who do not belong to, do not self-identify with, or cannot be readily classified under one of the identifiable Islamic schools and branches are known as non-denominational Muslims.

  1. ^ Geaves, Ronald (2021). "Part 1: Sunnī Traditions – Sectarianism in Sunnī Islam". In Cusack, Carole M.; Upal, M. Afzal (eds.). Handbook of Islamic Sects and Movements. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. Vol. 21. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 25–48. doi:10.1163/9789004435544_004. ISBN 978-90-04-43554-4. ISSN 1874-6691.
  2. ^ a b Poljarevic, Emin (2021). "Theology of Violence-oriented Takfirism as a Political Theory: The Case of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)". In Cusack, Carole M.; Upal, M. Afzal (eds.). Handbook of Islamic Sects and Movements. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. Vol. 21. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 485–512. doi:10.1163/9789004435544_026. ISBN 978-90-04-43554-4. ISSN 1874-6691.
  3. ^ a b Baele, Stephane J. (October 2019). Giles, Howard (ed.). "Conspiratorial Narratives in Violent Political Actors' Language" (PDF). Journal of Language and Social Psychology. Sage Publications. 38 (5–6): 706–734. doi:10.1177/0261927X19868494. hdl:10871/37355. ISSN 1552-6526. S2CID 195448888. Retrieved 3 January 2022.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ a b Rickenbacher, Daniel (August 2019). Jikeli, Gunther (ed.). "The Centrality of Anti-Semitism in the Islamic State's Ideology and Its Connection to Anti-Shiism". Religions. Basel: MDPI. 10 (8: The Return of Religious Antisemitism?): 483. doi:10.3390/rel10080483. ISSN 2077-1444.
  5. ^ a b Badara, Mohamed; Nagata, Masaki; Tueni, Tiphanie (June 2017). "The Radical Application of the Islamist Concept of Takfir" (PDF). Arab Law Quarterly. Leiden: Brill Publishers. 31 (2): 134–162. doi:10.1163/15730255-31020044. ISSN 1573-0255. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2021.