Casimir III the Great

Casimir III the Great
Casimir's tomb effigy in Wawel
King of Poland
Coronation25 April 1333
PredecessorLadislaus the Short
SuccessorLouis I of Hungary
King of Ruthenia
PredecessorYuri II of Galicia
SuccessorLouis I of Hungary
Born30 April 1310
Kowal, Duchy of Brześć Kujawski
Died5 November 1370(1370-11-05) (aged 60)
Kraków, Poland
SpouseAldona of Lithuania
Adelaide of Hesse
Christina Rokiczana (morganatic)
Hedwig of Sagan
Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania
Anna, Countess of Cilli
FatherWładysław I Łokietek
MotherJadwiga of Kalisz
SignatureCasimir III the Great's signature

Casimir III the Great (Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He also later became King of Ruthenia in 1340, and fought to retain the title in the Galicia-Volhynia Wars. He was the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty.

Casimir inherited a kingdom weakened by war and made it prosperous and wealthy. He reformed the Polish army and doubled the size of the kingdom. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian".[1] Casimir built extensively and founded the Jagiellonian University (back then simply called the University of Krakow),[2] the oldest Polish university and one of the oldest in the world. He also confirmed privileges and protections previously granted to Jews and encouraged them to settle in Poland in great numbers.[3]

Casimir left no legitimate sons. When he died in 1370 from an injury received while hunting, his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, succeeded him as king of Poland in personal union with Hungary.

  1. ^ Saxton, L. C. (1851). Fall of Poland; containing an analytical and a philosophical account of the causes which conspired in the ruin of that nation; together with a history of the country from its origin, in two volumes. Vol. I. New York: Charles Scribner publishing company. pp. 89.
  2. ^ Saxton, 1851, p. 535
  3. ^ Aharoni, Yohanan (2006-09-15). The Jewish People: An Illustrated History. A&C Black. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8264-1886-9.